• Faiths & Beliefs >> Islamic Beliefs

    Question ID: 63116Country: India

    Title: Eeman

    Question: What is the Aqidah (belief) of Maturidis on iman? Whether iman is only having belief on heart or it is both in belief and action? Please explain. Is iman static, is the belief of Maturidis? Many Hadiths state about instability of man’s iman. Please clarify me.

    Answer ID: 63116

    Bismillah hir-Rahman nir-Rahim !

    (Fatwa: 271/262/SN=04/1437) According to Ahl Sunnah al-Jamah (which also includes the Maturidis), the ‘iman’ in fact means to believe by heart that Allah is One, He has no partner, He is worthy of worship and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is His Messenger. Then such a person is a ‘believer’ without a doubt in the eyes of Allah. But in order to implement the commandments of Islam in this world it is mandatory that one expresses this belief with tongue; since it is only Allah who knows the condition of heart. Moreover, the deed is not part of iman (faith) rather the deeds are out of the fact of belief. The deeds are complimentary to faith. The deeds help a man to benefit from the fruits of faith. It is recorded in Sharh Aqaid al-Nasafi: .....ذهب جمهور المحققين إلى أنه هوالتصديق بالقلب وإنما الإقرار شرط لإجراء الاحكام فى الدنيا لما أن تصديق القلب أمر باطن لا بد له من علامة الخ (شرح العقائد نسفى ، ص: 121، مكتبه بلال ديوبند) (2) Iman actually means to confirm by heart and confirmation is an abstract thing and it does not accept any kinds of increase and decrease, but the deeds and conditions of man do increase or decrease, and as a result there is increase and decease in the fruits of faith. The verse and Hadiths that speak about the increase and decrease of faith they mean the same condition, not the faith itself. It is recorded in Sharh Aqaid: الإيمان هوالتصديق بما جاء به من عند الله تعالى والإقرار به فأما الأعمال في تتزايد في نفسها والإيمان لا يزيد ولا ينقص الخ. (شرح عقائد نسفى ، ص: 90، ط رشيديه دهلى). It is recorded in Sharh Akbar: ذهب الإمام الرازي وكثير من المتكلمين إلى أن هذا الخلاف لفظي راجع إلى تفسير الإيمان فإن قلنا هو التصديق فلا يقبلها لأن الواجب هو اليقين وانه لا يقبل التفاوت وإن قلنا هو الأعمال أيضا فيقبلهما فهذا هو التحقيق الذي يجب أن يعول عليه الخ (شرح فقه الكبر از ملا على قارى ، ص: 165 ط: مكتبه اشرفى ديوبند) Also see Fatawa Mahmoodia: 1/175-178, pub. Dhabel.

    Allah (Subhana Wa Ta'ala) knows Best

    Darul Ifta,

    Darul Uloom Deoband, India